The Netherlands, who topped Group A, advance to the quarterfinals to face either Argentina or Australia on Friday.
Both Dutch goals in the first half, scored by Memphis Depay and Daley Blind, came shortly after golden chances for the USMNT went begging.
The US played on the front foot from the opening kickoff and nearly took an early lead when Christian Pulisic snuck behind the Dutch defense off a ball played by Tyler Adams. But his left-footed shot was saved by goalkeeper Andries Noppert.
The Netherlands then sliced through the USMNT with some terrific passing and jumped ahead in the 10th minute on a clinical finish by Memphis Depay off a pass from Denzel Dumfries.
Tim Weah nearly leveled two minutes from halftime, collecting a failed clearance outside the box and blasting a shot on frame that was parried away by a diving Noppert.
The efficient Dutch doubled their lead in first-half stoppage time when Daley Blind latched onto a Dumfries cutback and scored on a one-touch strike from 12 yards out.
Tim Ream came close to pulling the USMNT within a goal four minutes into the second half, but his header following a Pulisic corner was cleared off the line by Steven Berghuis.
Haji Wright scored the elusive first goal in the 76th minute, getting a touch on a Pulisic low cross and looping it inside the far post.
But any hope of a comeback was dashed five minutes later when an unmarked Dumfries at the back post scored off a Blind cross.
- THE BIG PICTURE: Soccer, it has been said, is a cruel sport and that was painfully evident in Al Rayyan Saturday when the USMNT squandered a pair of quality chances in the first half and the Netherlands did not. As a result, the US head home from the World Cup, while the Dutch are through to the quarterfinals.
- MOMENT OF THE MATCH: A goal by Wright gave the US hope of a late comeback. Dumfries dashed said hope with this goal.
- MAN OF THE MATCH: Dumfries set up first-half goals by Depay and Blind and then provided the gut-punch five minutes after Wright pulled the USMNT within a goal.
- USA: End of tournament
- NED: Friday, December 9 vs. Argentina/Australia | 10 am ET (FOX, Telemundo | Quarterfinals)