Vincent, 24, spent his whole career with the Fire, a regular member of the Starting XI since being selected No. 4 overall in the 2016 MLS SuperDraft. This season, he made 32 appearances, adding a goal and four assists. He made one appearance for the US men's national team.
"This may come as a surprise to many, but I'm at a time in my life where it is best for me to move on from the game," Vincent wrote on Twitter.
Vincent made 85 appearances for the Fire after playing 80 matches for Stanford, receiving NSCAA first-team All-American and Pac-12 Defensive Player of the Year honors as a junior and senior.
"Chicago will always be a special place to me and I am forever grateful for the privilege I had of wearing the jersey and representing the city," Vincent said. "I wish the club the best of luck and future success. Thanks for the incredible memories, Chicago! I can't wait to see what life brings next."